How China's natural rubber industry faces WTO

2022-08-01
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How does China's natural rubber industry face the WTO?

natural rubber is a major industrial raw material in the world. Only a few countries such as Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia can produce natural rubber in the world. This contradiction between supply and demand has prompted all countries in the world to list natural rubber as an important strategic material and raise it to a strategic height. China's natural rubber market has fallen into a strange circle since last year: on the one hand, the dependence on the international natural rubber market has been increasing, and will further increase with China's entry into the WTO; On the other hand, affected by China's accession to the WTO, the price of domestic natural rubber has dropped from 10000 yuan/ton at the beginning of last year to 7000 yuan/ton now to vigorously expand downstream demand, and there is no sign of getting rid of the "bear market". Therefore, in the face of WTO, it is imperative to adjust and reform, prosper and develop China's natural rubber market

first, the output is difficult to increase

at present, China has more than 400 natural rubber processing enterprises of various types, with more than 10 product varieties; Among the rubber used, standard rubber accounts for 80%, smoke rubber accounts for 5%, latex accounts for 10% and others account for 5%

although the production of natural rubber in China has increased from 200 tons per year in the 1950s to 490000 tons per year in 2000, the planting climate in China's natural rubber producing areas is relatively bad, and typhoons and cold currents are frequent, which to some extent limit the expansion of the area of rubber plantations and the further improvement of production. In a period of time, it is difficult for the area of rubber plantations in China to exceed 10 million mu (660000 HA), The increase of output mainly depends on the replacement of excellent tree species and the adoption of scientific planting methods. Even so, the maximum theoretical output of natural rubber in China is only 700000-800000 tons. At present, the planting area of natural rubber in China ranks fourth in the world, and the output ranks fifth in the world

II. There is a large gap between supply and demand

40000 tons of POM project uses the methanol products produced by the upstream industry of Kailuan seaport coal chemical industry park. The consumption of natural rubber in China increases with the rapid development of China's rubber industry. In 2000, the rubber consumption exceeded 2million tons, ranking second in the world, accounting for 11% of the total rubber consumption in the world, including 1.03 million tons of natural rubber

from the comparison between the consumption and production of natural rubber, it can be seen that there is a large gap between the supply and demand of natural rubber in China. Therefore, the country imports a large amount of natural rubber every year to meet the needs of domestic rubber industry

at present, China adopts quota management for the import of natural rubber, which is subject to the dual management of the certificate of import plan configuration of important agricultural products issued by the State Development Planning Commission and the import license of the people's Republic of China issued by the Ministry of foreign trade and economic cooperation. The imported natural rubber mainly comes from Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia, and some from Vietnam, Nigeria and Sri Lanka. The imported varieties are mainly 3 # and 1 # cigarette rubber, 20 # and 10 # standard rubber, and high ammonia concentrated latex, which are mainly used in the production of radial tires, aviation tires, military products, condoms and latex gloves

the trading mode of natural rubber in China is still mainly spot trading. At present, there is only a futures trading market in Shanghai, and the annual trading volume is not large. In addition, some rubber stations and rubber operating companies have also carried out the above transactions, but the number is not large

China adopts the national reserve rotation system for natural rubber, with an annual quantity of about 20000-40000 tons. The old rubber is thrown out and the new rubber is stored at the same time, which can not only adjust the market surplus and shortage, but also reduce one kind of molasses and stabilize the rubber price

according to analysis, China's rubber industry will develop steadily in the next 5-10 years, with an average growth rate of 5% - 7%. In 2005, the total consumption of rubber in China will reach 2.45 million tons, including 1.15 million tons of natural rubber; The total consumption in 2010 was 2.95 million tons, including 1.33 million tons of natural rubber. Since the output of natural rubber in China cannot be greatly increased, China will further increase its dependence on the international natural rubber market

III. impact of China's entry into WTO and Countermeasures

the Chinese government has made a commitment to abolish the import quota of natural rubber within four years after China's entry into WTO, and the import tariff will be reduced from the current 25% to 20% within two years. At the same time, during the transitional period, the management of quotas will also be changed in accordance with the provisions of the WTO: from the current absolute quotas to tariff quotas, that is, imports within quotas can enjoy preferential tariffs, and imports outside quotas can enjoy normal tariffs. At the same time, according to the principle of non discrimination, national policy quotas cannot be arranged, but global quotas; Nor can quotas be divided into general trade, processing with imported materials and special quotas for border trade, but only one quota; Enterprises choose the trade mode, i.e. full caliber quota. In addition, the authorized institutions will be canceled and the first level management will be adopted, that is, the State Development Planning Commission will directly distribute the quotas to the enterprises; "Two certificates" will be changed into "one certificate", and enterprises will directly declare customs with quota certificates; The number of quotas will increase by a certain margin each year compared with the previous year

China's raw materials and equipment used for supporting the rubber industry are relatively complete, and the cost is relatively low. Therefore, China's accession to the WTO is conducive to expanding the export of China's rubber products, which can drive the growth of the amount of imported natural rubber required for processing. In addition, the foreign capital entering China will increase greatly, which can further accelerate the speed of China's economic development, thus promoting the development of the rubber industry, and the consumption of natural rubber for domestic consumption will also increase

due to the shortage of domestic natural rubber production, China's imported natural rubber will certainly increase significantly, which will certainly have a significant impact on the domestic natural rubber market and the production of natural rubber. In other words, the integration of domestic and foreign markets of natural rubber will make the production of domestic natural rubber face great challenges. As we all know, due to historical reasons, the production cost of domestic natural rubber is nearly twice as high as that of major foreign rubber producing countries, while the ratio of direct production cost to indirect production cost is about 1:1, so the enterprise society is overburdened. If the direct production cost is used, the production cost of natural rubber in China will not be much higher than that in foreign countries. Therefore, the main task facing natural rubber production enterprises is to reduce indirect production costs and improve product competitiveness. At the same time, the primary processed products of natural rubber in China are too single, and the consistency and stability of quality are also far behind those of foreign products. They can not meet the quality requirements of some rubber products, such as radial tires, aviation tires and condoms, which also affect the market competitiveness of natural rubber in China

China's natural rubber industry should actively carry out work in the following aspects to meet the test of joining the WTO: 1 It is necessary to reduce the number of employees and increase efficiency, and transfer the surplus labor force to improve production efficiency and reduce costs; 2. the state has issued corresponding policies to reduce the social burden of enterprises, so as to reduce the indirect production costs of enterprises; 3. expand the production scale and improve the production equipment, so as to change the current situation that the production enterprise is too small, the equipment is obsolete, the product quality is inconsistent, the stability is poor, and the cost is high; 4. introduce excellent tree species, improve strains and improve rubber quality; 5. take advantage of the opportunity of joining the WTO to introduce foreign capital and production management experience, so as to achieve the purpose of improving production conditions and product quality; 6. adapt to the market demand, actively develop and produce rubber varieties required by the rubber industry, such as rubber for radial tire (although it has passed the identification of relevant departments, but has not been truly recognized by the radial tire manufacturer), special rubber for aviation tire, special latex for condom, low protein latex, etc

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